In silico

57916_2‘Neither a borrower nor a lender be’ is a saying that languages have always ignored. Judging by the number of English words that have been adopted by other languages over the last century or so, its status as one of the top ‘lenders’ must be unchallenged. But a borrower?  Yes, a number of new ‘English’ words are borrowed from other languages, too – Japanese, for example, has given us more than just emoji, kakuro and sashimi – most recently manga and mecha. We even borrow and then refashion words. The Italians have given us many words to do with food (which we mangle grammatically as well as in the pronunciation – think of ‘a panini’) and, enjoying so much good weather, they may like to dine al fresco. We borrowed that expression a long time ago – it sounds so much more exotic than ‘outside’. But even those of us who can’t even make it to the park at lunchtime can console ourselves by giving the expression a humorous twist and eating al desko.

It might seem surprising, though, to import new words from a dead language. And yet there are a number of words queuing up to get into the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary that look very much like Latin. Latin hasn’t been spoken as a vernacular for more than a millennium, so why would we want to import new words from it into English? Well, Latin is still around us, e.g. in specialist fields, viz. medicine, science, and so on, ergo if we need a new expression to fit in with terms we already use, yes, we make up some Latin.

We all know from science about in vivo and in vitro but nowadays experiments can be conducted without living creatures or even cultures in Petri dishes. They can be done virtually, using computer simulations, or in silico. When I was at school, ‘dissection’ meant cutting up a smelly fish in a biology lab – now science is so much more sophisticated:

Single-cell sequencing data enables in silico dissection of the drosophila embryo.

Scientists are turning to ‘in silico biology’, building computer models of the intricate processes that take place inside cells, organs, and even people.

Understanding how humans function is not just a matter for biology, but also for economists. In evolution, we are familiar with the progression from Homo habilis through Homo erectus to Homo sapiens, but when commentators wanted to define the type of person who would rationally choose the solution which provides the greatest benefit, they called him Homo economicus.  Although the term has been around for about a century, apparently Homo economicus has turned out to be a mythical creature, because modern humans – thankfully – do not typically behave this way. But modern human beings are not totally blameless creatures. In fact we are having such an effect on the planet that a new geological term has been suggested to describe our times, the Anthropocene period. The epoch we are currently in is called the Holocene, which followed the Pleistocene, but it has been suggested that we need a term to reflect the fact that the geology of the world is now more affected by the activities of humans than anything else. So to fit the pattern already established a new word has been made from the Greek anthropos, ‘human being’ and kainos, ‘new’.

In the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary we have an example at language:

Why study Latin? It’s a dead language.

But the classical languages haven’t met their nemesis yet!


Margaret Deuter is a managing editor in the ELT Dictionaries department at Oxford University Press. NB she taught languages for ten years before joining OUP and working on learner’s dictionaries e.g. the Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, Das Groβe Oxford Wörterbuch, and the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, q.v. for an explanation of these abbreviations!

No-platform

shutterstock-9929686In February 2016, equal rights campaigner Peter Tatchell found himself on the receiving end of accusations of racism and bigotry. Fran Cowling, a National Union of Students representative on LGBT issues in Britain, asked for Tatchell to withdraw from a university debate, saying she wouldn’t share a platform with him.

Tatchell defended himself vigorously, mobilizing support from other veterans of radical campaigns from the 1970s and 80s. In the end Ms Cowling was the one to step down, but not before a ferocious debate had been launched about the NUS no-platform policy and the limits of free speech.

So what is no-platforming?

Originating in the 1970s, the no-platform policy was designed to prevent racist, far right organizations from promoting their views on university campuses, and was a feature of student politics in the 70s and 80s.

It has come alive again recently, but this time veteran progressives such as ex-politician George Galloway and feminist writer Germaine Greer have found themselves under scrutiny for their outspoken opinions. New student leaders say that they are simply upholding the no-platform tradition of the 70s and 80s, to prevent social reactionaries (regardless of their past credentials) from spreading hatred and bigotry. The older generations accuse today’s student activists of being part of a ‘snowflake generation’, which is oversensitive and unable to face the challenges of free speech. Whatever the rights and wrongs, the argument between two generations of radicals has been very public and very acrimonious.

The word no-platform is not only of interest for its topicality but also linguistically, because it showcases the way words in English can transition from one part of speech to another. (Notice how I’ve cleverly shoehorned in examples of nouns that are now also used as verbs.)

The possibility of making verbs from nouns is a long-standing feature of English. What’s particularly interesting about no-platform is that it’s not a simple noun, but a two-word phrase that has been transformed into a verb. What’s more, it’s used as a transitive verb – you can ‘no-platform someone’. In fact, corpus data suggests that this use of the verb, and particularly the passive form, is a recent occurrence. See, for example, this headline:

Ignore the excuses – Peter Tatchell has been no-platformed.

This type of transformation isn’t limited to nouns or noun phrases. There are even examples of adverbial phrases being turned into verbs. For example, these two words come from the area of business (which seems to be a particularly rich source of this kind of linguistic change):

offshore: Thousands of these jobs have been offshored.
onboard: My focus has been restructuring how we do things when we onboard a client.

It’s hard sometimes not to wince (inwardly at any rate) when you hear some of these usages. But is that the right reaction? Should we decry their use as a decline in standards among contemporary speakers of English? Or should we embrace these words as a sign of the flexibility and creativity of English? It’s rather like the argument about no-platforming – what is offensive to some is a matter of freedom for others. And like that argument, it’s a debate that is likely to run and run.


Martin Moore is a Managing Editor in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries and Reference Grammar department. Although he has authored books and online resources for learners of English, this is the first time that he has blogged on grammar.

Eish!

 

eish_main-picWhat do you say when you stub your toe? In English, we exclaim ouch, ow or yeow when we hurt ourselves. The Germans and Dutch say something similar: autsch or au, in the case of German, and au(w) in Dutch. Sudden pain provokes a different sort of sound (variations on /aɪ/) from French, Arabic and Chinese speakers: aïe (/aɪiː/), آيْ (/aɪ/) and 哎哟 (/aɪ jəʊ/). The Japanese word for ouch is even further from the English: 痛い ( /iˈtai/ ).

What about when you’ve escaped something bad? For English speakers, phew can express relief. /u:f/ is the sound several other languages use to express the same emotion – French, Russian, Arabic and Dutch among them.

And how do you express disgust? If we discovered a fly in our soup, we might exclaim yuck, ugh or eww, while the French would say berk, the Germans and Dutch bah, the Russians фу (/fuː/) or брр (/brr/) and the Egyptians خْس (/xs/).

Some exclamations are less like normal words than just sounds that we make: groans, shouts, yelps, snorts and so on. They help us convey a vast range of emotions and reactions to things: surprise, shock, pleasure, excitement, disgust, anger, pain, uncertainty, scepticism, cold … and more! They can be onomatopoeic; and as such their spelling is often tricky and variable.

eish_1
The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary lets you know when more than one spelling is possible, as you’ll see with the entry for ugh.

How much exclamations are characteristic of particular languages, and not human sounds generally, is apparent when we compare equivalents in different languages: sometimes they are similar, often not. As well as differences in expressing emotions, we might also express what we hear differently too. While cats sound similar across many languages, words for other animal sounds can be very diverse. Take dogs, for example: they say woof in English, ouah in French, гав (/ɡʌf/) in Russian, عَوْعَوْ (/‘aw ‘aw/) in Arabic, and 汪汪 (/wæŋ wæŋ/) in Chinese.

eish_2

And different varieties of English, e.g. North American English, Indian English and Scottish English, also have exclamations that are specific to them. Here are some examples from the online version of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary:

US:

eish_3

Irish:

eish_4

Scottish:

eish_5

Indian:

eish_6

South African:

eish_7

Let’s look in detail at another South African exclamation that has gained currency in the last couple of decades: the exclamation eish. It is pronounced /eɪʃ/ and is used to express a range of emotions such as surprise, annoyance and pain.

Exclamations like these that are specific to particular varieties of English, can tell us interesting stories about the places they come from. Eish has come to English via mixed languages that include words from Afrikaans and African languages. And these mixed languages developed as youth and street languages in the townships of South Africa – a township under apartheid being an area in which non-white people lived, e.g. Soweto, near a white-only community where they went to work.

While the word eish started its life as township slang, since the abolition of apartheid in 1991, it has been used more and more widely throughout South Africa, particularly among the younger generations.

It is a versatile word which can be used alone, at the beginning or end of an utterance, or be inserted for emphasis in the middle of a sentence. Here are some citations from the Oxford English Corpus showing something of the word’s richness and range:

Eish ja, we did start off with cold feet, I must be honest.

Eish man, love at first sight.

Is it possible to get a link for the tribute show they did on Monday? I missed it and I soooo wanted to see it eish.

It is really good eish.

I know as a fan I should defend her but eish sometimes it’s hard, cause she does things I don’t agree with.

The variety, versatility and expressiveness of exclamations make them an exciting part of the English language and an interesting point of comparison with other languages. If exploring these words makes you go ‘wow!’, you might want to go and look at the ‘More Like This’ cross references on exclamations and animal sounds. You will find sets of similar expressions, and Premium users can download activities to practise them.

Eish is not yet in the online version of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary but is coming soon.


Janet Phillips is a Senior Editor in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries & Reference Grammar department. She has been editing bilingual dictionaries and grammar reference materials for learners of English for more than 20 years – wowee!

FLOTUS

Earlier this month, Melania Trump became the 45th FLOTUS or First Lady of the United States. Other firsts she can claim include being the first FLOTUS not to speak English as her first language, the first foreign-born FLOTUS since Louisa Adams (FLOTUS from 1825-1829) and the first FLOTUS in quite some time to delay her move to the White House.

white-house

That opening paragraph would have been 25 words longer if I hadn’t used FLOTUS, which partly explains why the word exists. FLOTUS is an abbreviation; the short form of a word, often used to save time, effort or space (particularly in writing). In general, an abbreviation can be formed from any of the letters in a word or phrase. With forms of address, for example, ‘Captain’ can be written as ‘Capt.’ and ‘Mister’ is almost always written as ‘Mr’. We usually pronounce an abbreviation in the same way we would the full form of the word, so /ˈkæptɪn/ and /ˈmɪstə(r)/, not /kæpt/ and /mɜːr/.

One particular type of abbreviation is the initialism. Instead of making a short form from any of the letters in a word or phrase, initialisms are formed from the first letters of other words. To pronounce them, we say each of the letters individually. You might see D.O.B. on official forms, RSVP on invitations or RIP on gravestones. These everyday initialisms are taken from English, French and Latin respectively and have become so much a part of the English language that their origins might well be forgotten.

Related to the initialism, FLOTUS is another type of abbreviation – an acronym. Like initialisms, acronyms are made from the first letters of longer names but unlike initialisms, they’re pronounced as words in their own right. Instead of saying each letter of FLOTUS individually, it’s pronounced to rhyme with lotus.

[British English]

[American English]

This makes FLOTUS easy to use in everyday speech. The word has spread from insider slang used by secret service agents to refer to Nancy Reagan (FLOTUS from 1981-1989) into much wider use in popular TV shows, news reports and general conversation as a way of referring to all subsequent First Ladies of the United States. There’s a mild irreverence to FLOTUS that means it’s used to talk about them rather than to them but it certainly isn’t an offensive slang term. In fact, it is now used by (former) First Ladies to refer to themselves, as can be seen in Hillary Clinton’s mini Twitter biography.

The popularity of FLOTUS has continued to grow so much that the word is now enjoying its latest incarnation as an official Twitter handle, created for Michelle Obama (FLOTUS from 2009-2017 and @FLOTUS from 2013-2017). In fact, FLOTUS has become so well established online, in print and IRL that rather than altering the word itself in anyway, people have humorously speculated what the ‘L’ might be made to stand for if a female President of the United States is ever elected. When it looked like Hillary Clinton might become POTUS, one suggestion was that her husband – former President Bill Clinton – might become ‘First Laddie of the United States’.

Although First Laddie isn’t likely to catch on, other names or phrases created for existing acronyms – rather playfully known as backronyms – have fooled people over the years, along with many examples of folk etymology. As convincing as they might sound though, ADIDAS is not an acronym of all day I dream about sport, posh is not the short form of Port Out, Starboard Home and golf does not stand for gentlemen only, ladies forbidden. To enjoy accurate etymology, we’d recommend using the Word Origin section in OALD entries.

sos

FLOTUS is not yet in the online version of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary but look out for it in a future update.


Danielle Gee is an Editor in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries department. Before joining OUP, she gained a BA in English and volunteered for VSO in PNG. 

Fangirls and fandom

Have you ever found yourself ‘fangirling’ over a celebrity? Which ‘fandoms’ do you belong to? Do you ‘ship’ any characters in your favourite TV show?

If the above questions have left you feeling flummoxed, I’m here to decode them for you, with this handy guide to the language of being a fan.

Fandom

The word ‘fandom’ was added to our Advanced Learner’s Dictionary in December 2015, and can be used in two senses:

  1. to refer to the state of being a fan of something (‘25 years of fandom’)
  2. to refer to the fans of something as a community (‘the Twilight fandom’).

fangirl-1In recent years, online forums and social media sites have provided spaces where the fandoms of TV shows, bands, celebrities, books and more can go and enthuse together, whether by ranking their favourite Doctor Who companions, by writing fan fiction (works of which are also known as “fanfics” or just “fics”), or by begging their favourite band members for a retweet.

Among other things, the explosion in fandom culture has led to the creation of several new words and linguistic innovations. One of my personal favourites is the concept of shipping. ‘Ship’ is a shortened form of relationship’, and when used as a verb it means (according to the Oxford English Dictionary – this one hasn’t made it into our Learner’s Dictionaries yet) ‘support or have a particular interest in a romantic pairing between two characters in a fictional series, often when this relationship is one portrayed by fans rather than depicted in the series itself’. From this, we get ‘ship names’, which are names for real or imaginary couples formed by blending the names of the two characters, or sometimes celebrities, in question. The Harry Potter fandom alone has given the world such gifts as ‘Drarry’, ‘Hinny’, ‘Dramione’ and ‘Bellamort’ (I’ll leave you to work out which characters each of those refers to), while ‘Brangelina’ is a more old school – and now obsolete – example.

Fangirls and fanboys

The words ‘fangirl’ and fanboy aren’t technicallyfangirl-2 new – the Oxford English Dictionary records that ‘fanboy’ was first used in 1919 and ‘fangirl’ in 1934. However, these terms have enjoyed something of a cultural renaissance in recent years, as the rise of Internet fandom has spawned a new breed of fans whose passionate commitment to their fandom of choice goes above and beyond the usual admiration from a distance. The revival of the terms ‘fanboy’ and ‘fangirl’ seems to reflect a need to label these extreme enthusiasts as something other than mere fans.

While adding -boy or -girl to the end of a word can often just mean that the person being referred to is a child (e.g. schoolgirl, choirboy), in this case the fans being referred to are often adults, and so the suffix could be seen as infantilizing – it suggests that their enthusiasm is immature, and that they are behaving like overexcited children or teenagers. Looking at real-world examples of the usage of both words, I came across many instances where they were used in a very negative and condescending way: fangirl was often preceded by words such as rabid and creepy’, and fanboy by desperate and pathetic’, suggesting that these more extreme fans are often viewed with strong disapproval.

It’s interesting that an originally gender-neutral word, ‘fan’, has come to be assigned suffixes that differentiate fans by their gender. The examples I looked at pointed to a clear difference in the way the two words were used. The word ‘fangirl’ mostly came up in relation to celebrities, especially boy bands, and to TV and book series. ‘Fanboy’, on the other hand, was often used about those expressing strong loyalty to certain software and technology brands (the examples in the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary entry refer to ‘a Nintendo fanboy’ and ‘Linux fanboys’), and about fans of the stereotypically nerdy side of popular culture, such as comics, video games and sci-fi. Interestingly, men expressing excitement about celebrities were sometimes described as ‘fangirling’ rather than ‘fanboying’, suggesting that the object of the fandom or the way it is expressed may matter more than the gender of the fan. ‘Fangirl’ often seems to be used to refer to a more overexcited and frivolous sort of fan than ‘fanboy’ – the kind who speaks in SHOUTY CAPITALS and takes any opportunity to ‘squee’ (‘Squeal in delight or excitement’, according to the OED). Dismissive or derogatory uses of ‘fangirl’ could be seen to carry sexist undertones, reinforcing old stereotypes of women – and especially young women – as hysterical and irrational.

However, there’s evidence to suggest that the connotations of the word are shifting. Some of the more recent examples of usage I found showed ‘fangirl’ being used in a much more positive way (“when I call it the nerdy fangirl network, it’s a compliment”), or simply as a neutral term (“She’s amazing, I’m a huge fangirl of hers”), indicating that many people are now happy to embrace the word and define themselves as fangirls. A young adult novel entitled Fangirl which portrayed a self-proclaimed fangirl in a sympathetic and subtle way was published a few years ago, and may have helped to turn the tide for this much-abused word. I, for one, am all for letting our inner fangirls run wild – after all, a little squeeing never hurt anyone.

Fangirl is not yet in the online version of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary but look out for it in a future update.


Laura Shanahan is Dictionaries Assistant in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries department. Before joining OUP earlier this year, she studied French and Italian at university, and spent a year abroad teaching English in Italy. She has also worked at a translation agency, a bookshop and a library. She can often be found fangirling over fictional characters.

Hygge

hygge2People around the world have long benefited from what Denmark has to offer those who live outside its borders. Famous exports from this relatively small country include Lego™, Danish furniture design and the stories of Hans Christian Andersen. In the UK, interest in our Nordic neighbours has also risen as many have become hooked on the various Scandinavian thriller series now shown on British TV, including Denmark’s The Killing.

The latest Danish offering has arrived in the English-speaking world in the form of a word rather than a product or TV show. I first came across this term as I scoured an article claiming to reveal the Danish secret to raising happy children. As a mother of two, I was naturally intrigued to know what I could do to make my young offspring as happy as the Danes. I discovered that the answer, as put forward by the writer of the article, lay in bringing more “hygge” into our lives.

Although this word has only recently come into use among non-Danish speakers, it’s already made quite an impression. With no direct translation, hygge, pronounced /hʊgə/ or /h(j)uːgə/, involves getting cosy and enjoying life’s pleasures. Unsurprisingly, retailers haven’t missed the opportunity to cash in on this trend and if you go into any modern homeware shop in Britain, you’re likely to notice a lot of Scandinavian-inspired home accessories. Soft cushions, candles, and pieces of furniture made from natural materials all help build the perfect hygge scene.

While creating a calm, homely atmosphere is one part of hygge, the concept is about more than your environment. In its true form, hygge is about taking time to savour the moment, either on your own or with the people around you. This could mean enjoying a meal with friends, taking a relaxing bath or curling up on the sofa with a good book. The key is to fully appreciate what’s happening and avoid distractions. With all this in mind, it seems hardly surprising that hygge has been linked to Denmark’s ranking as one of the world’s happiest nations. It is also perhaps no coincidence that our growing interest in hygge has come at a time of political upheaval in the United Kingdom and the United States.

While many endorsements of the art of hygge can be found on social media and in the shops, there’s also been a growing backlash. If you do a search for hygge on the Internet, you’ll see titles such as, “Enough with the hygge already!” and “Hygge: The dark side of Danish comfort…” Those who don’t agree with the hype about hygge label it as smug and boring, and point out that cosiness and a good atmosphere are not exclusively Danish qualities, but qualities that have been embraced within many cultures for centuries.

Love it or hate it, hygge is becoming more and more common in English, and even made the shortlist for 2016’s Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year. It is used not only as a noun in its own right, but also before other nouns as a modifier. You can have a hygge experience or moment, enjoy a hygge dinner or visit a hygge home.

Hygge in all its forms is a loanword, the term we use for words that we adopt from other languages. Other words from Scandinavia that have recently begun to appear more frequently in English include “fika”, a Swedish word used to describe the custom of taking a break for a hot drink and often a baked treat, and “lagom”, another Swedish word, meaning lack of excess. Can you guess which Scandinavian languages these better-known loanwords come from?*

  1. troll
  2. slalom
  3. smorgasbord
  4. gravlax
  5. ombudsman

*See the Word Origin section of each OALD entry to find out.

Only time will tell whether hygge, like these other words, is here to stay in the English language, or whether it will just be a flash in the pan. Whatever its fate, as the digital world draws us away from simpler pastimes and pleasures, perhaps we’d all benefit from following the example of the Danes and “hygge-fying” our lives a little more.

Hygge is not yet in the online version of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary but look out for it in a future update.


Leonie Hey is an Editor in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries department. She taught English in Sardinia and worked as a language teacher in the UK before joining OUP in 2011. She is bringing hygge to Oxford one cake at a time. 

Listicle

It’s difficult to go on any social media site without quickly coming across a link to a list of “mind-blowing facts”, “reasons why…” or “mistakes you might be making”. This increasingly popular form of online content has become known as a ‘listicle’, which, as the perceptive among you might have guessed, is a cross between a list and an article, divided into numbered or bullet-pointed sections of text that are often accompanied by pictures or GIFs. Listicles can be based on pretty much any subject matter: a quick Google search provides results that range from the generic (“67 Awesome Halloween Costume Ideas”) to the very specific (“31 Kitchen Products For People Who Seriously Love Star Wars”), from distracting fluff (“30 Baby Animals That Will Make You Go ‘Aww’”) to genuinely useful tips (“4 Ways You Can Register To Vote In Less Than 5 Minutes”). And so, without further ado:

5 Mind-Blowing Facts You Need To Know About The Word ‘Listicle’

1) It’s a portmanteau word
English speakers love making new words by blending two pre-existing words, and ‘listicle’ is no exception. Many of the new words that were added to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary earlier this year are portmanteau words: you can read more about them here and here.

2) The concept predates the word
‘Listicle’ may be a new word, originating in the early Noughties, but pieces of writing structured as lists have been around for a long while, from lists of beauty tips in teen magazines to ‘Top Ten’ lists of songs or albums by music journalists. You might be surprised to learn that a 19th century example of something that looks a lot like a listicle was unearthed a couple of years ago, entitled “The 25 Stages From Courtship To Marriage” – you can read about it here (http://publicdomainreview.org/collections/the-25-stages-from-courtship-to-marriage/). However, list-style articles have undergone a dramatic surge in popularity with the 21st century rise of online-only media outlets such as BuzzFeed and the Huffington Post, and the recent coinage of the word ‘listicle’ seems to reflect the increased need for a precise way of referring to this distinctive form.

3) It’s not the only new word to originate from the word ‘article’
The word ‘charticle’, while less popular than ‘listicle’, has also come into use in recent years, and is a similar portmanteau word, this time blending chart and article. It refers to an article structured around charts or infographics.

4) Listicle titles are often prime examples of clickbait
Another common feature of the listicle is a title ending in something along the lines of “number 5 will shock you!” These titles are described as clickbait because they act as virtual bait, designed to make someone mindlessly scrolling through Facebook stop and click on the link to find out what could possibly be so shocking. (And yes, ‘clickbait’ is yet another portmanteau word!)

5) Not everyone loves listicles
Listicles have been criticised as a lowbrow and dumbed-down form by some journalists, who think that their simple list structure eradicates the need for good storytelling or a coherently-linked argument. The Canadian journalist Jeffrey Dvorkin went so far as to declare that clickbait and listicles will be “the death of journalism”. Controversial as they might be, though, listicles are undeniably popular. A counterargument to the criticisms of listicle haters like Dvorkin might be that modern life is increasingly fast-paced and full of multitasking, and so we don’t always have time to sit down with a newspaper and read a lengthy, well-researched article. A listicle can be the perfect way to fill a five-minute bus journey with some easily digestible infotainment. And besides, don’t we all need to just sit back, switch our brains off and scroll through 45 cats that are too fluffy to even exist every now and again?

fluffy-kitten-croppedWhichever side of the listicle debate you’re on, it looks like the word is here to stay. The neologism ‘listicle’ is becoming almost as widely-used as the form it denotes, cropping up more and more often in mainstream discourse (the Guardian, the Independent and the New York Times have all published articles discussing listicles in the last few years), and its inclusion in the next update of the online edition of the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is a testament to its newfound popularity among English speakers.

Anyway, I’d better wrap this up – I’ve got some baby animals to look at, and I need to find out whether number 17 is really so cute I’ll want to squish it.

‘Listicle’ is not yet in the online edition of the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary but is one to look out for in the next update.


Laura Shanahan is Dictionaries Assistant in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries department. Before joining OUP earlier this year, she studied French and Italian at university, and spent a year abroad teaching English in Italy. She has also worked at a translation agency, a bookshop and a library. She is an avid reader of listicles and books alike.

Is there a word or phrase you would like to see featured as Word of the Month? It should be something that is new to the language or something that is being used in a new way. If you have a suggestion, please leave a comment. (All comments will need to be approved before they appear on the site.)

Bae

baeScrolling idly through Instagram about six months ago I saw a photo of a young couple staring into each other’s eyes with soppy expressions on their faces. So far, so predictable. What briefly caught my ever-editorial eye, however, was the caption: ‘Me and my bae’. I automatically presumed that the pair were so distracted by their passionate romance that they’d mistyped ‘babe’, so I thought nothing more of it. Over the next few days and weeks, though, I saw more and more references to bae on social media. At first I was willing to pass it off as an epidemic of typos, but as time went on and the bae usage became more prolific and varied, I became increasingly suspicious that there was more to this than a simple misspelling.

I took to trusty Google for enlightenment, searching for ‘what does bae mean’ (you know you’re getting older when you start having to google words used on social media). My search, rather confusingly, returned two answers. One that it is an abbreviated form of ‘babe’, and the other that it is in fact an acronym for ‘Before Anything Else’. There seemed to be no definitive proof either way, but the meaning – a term of endearment – was evident. I was intrigued though, so I started paying more attention to the contexts in which bae was being used in an attempt to better understand its meaning.

I found examples of the word being used as a noun (‘J-Law’s rumoured new bae, Chris Martin, was also in the vicinity’, ‘When you and bae say the same thing at the same time’), a verb (‘Chloë Grace Moretz just revealed she’d totally bae Zac Efron’) and an adjective (‘Ice cream is bae’). It seems that bae is primarily a noun used to refer to a person’s boyfriend or girlfriend, but that it has morphed over time to take on a wider meaning: a term that can be used to label things as very good, as in the ice cream example above. The verbal usage appears to have stemmed from a British radio station, which uses a humorously named game, ‘To bae or not to bae’, as part of their interviews with celebrities. The game involves the radio presenter naming various well-known people and asking the celebrity interviewee if they would ‘bae them’, i.e. if they would date them.

Finally I felt suitably informed and confident that if I have the urge to use the word bae myself, I will do so correctly, and I hope anyone reading this now feels similarly equipped. Just to put your knowledge of current English vernacular to the test, I will leave you with the following quote from The Huffington Post to decode: ‘Talk to the hand, bae, ’cause your basic face aint on fleek!’

Click here to see the online Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary entry for bae.


About the author: Stacey Bateman is a Production Editor in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries department. She taught English in Spain and worked for a sports and local interest publisher in Derby before joining OUP in 2011. She would count reading and all things floral as bae.

Is there a word or phrase you would like to see featured as Word of the Month? It should be something that is new to the language or something that is being used in a new way. If you have a suggestion, please leave a comment. (All comments will need to be approved before they appear on the site.)

Mansplain

Writers have always enjoyMansplained inventing words. Lewis Carroll and Roald Dahl, two of our favourite authors, created whole lexicons of new words as part of the worlds they imagined (see previous blog posts). One of the best-loved poems in the English language is Carroll’s nonsense rhyme that begins

‘Twas brillig and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe …’

You won’t find many of these words in a dictionary! But while some new words are playful nonsense, others move into the language and become part of everyday speech.

The American writer Rebecca Solnit didn’t coin the word mansplain herself. The word was inspired by Men explain things to me, her 2008 essay on gender and power. She described a situation in which a man explained something to her in a condescending manner. The word mansplain appeared on a blog shortly afterwards, and quickly gained popularity. It was included in The New York Times Word of the Year list in 2010 and was chosen as Macquarie Dictionary (Australia’s National Dictionary) Word of the Year 2014. From the United States and Australia it travelled to Britain and was added to the online edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary in March 2016.

Mansplain is an example of a portmanteau word (thank you, Lewis Carroll!) in which man is combined with explain. It is one of a number of neologisms – new words – that relate to gender characteristics and stereotypes, for example, man flu, man bag, manspreading. Can you think of any similar words? As well as man, other words relating to gender that combine to make compounds are bro, chick, dad, dude, mum and include the following. Can you guess what they mean?

  1. bromance
  2. chick flick
  3. dad dancing
  4. dude food
  5. mandals
  6. mumsy
  7. yummy mummy

Words like these show our creative approach to language, based on a love of wordplay. Many of these words are humorous, although some people find theMansplain 1m offensive, and mansplain has been criticized for being sexist. However, the role of a lexicographer is to track and record language as it changes and evolves, reflecting current patterns and developments. If a word is used often enough in written and spoken language, then it
is considered for inclusion in a dictionary. Not all the words in this post will make it to the next edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, but they help us to identify trends in language. Which new words will you add to your personal lexicon?


Answers:
1. bromance a very close friendship between men
2. chick flick a film that is intended especially for women
3. dad dancing dancing to pop music in an unfashionable way by older men
4. dude food food, especially with meat, that men like
5. mandals sandals (= light open shoes) for men
6. mumsy having a comfortable but dull and old-fashioned appearance
7. yummy mummy an attractive young woman who is the mother of a young child or children


About the author: Victoria Bull is a Senior Editor in OUP’s ELT Dictionaries department. Before joining Oxford University Press in 2004, she taught English to adults from many countries in London. She lives in the Cotswolds, where she enjoys reading chick lit while eating girl food.

Is there a word or phrase you would like to see featured as Word of the Month? It should be something that is new to the language or something that is being used in a new way. If you have a suggestion, please leave a comment. (All comments will need to be approved before they appear on the site.)

Warrior

warrior_croppedJumpsquiffling whoopsy-splunkers* are not the latest new words to be added to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary! Alas, we who work on dictionaries for learners of English don’t get to gobblefunk with words like our colleagues in Children’s Dictionaries. Lickswishy as these words may be, we can’t really claim that they have much of a life outside Roald Dahl’s stories. But it’s interesting that although he invented so many wonderful-sounding words, they are usually made up of recognizable bits of existing language, so that children don’t have too much difficulty in working out what they might mean.

And it’s true that most of the ‘new’ words we add to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary are not ‘new’ in the sense of ‘never-been-seen-before’. Very often they are new uses of old words, or new combinations of existing words. We’ve recently added a cluster of compounds to the OLD website, and these new expressions all contain the same old word.

class _____
culture _____
keyboard _____
road _____
weekend _____

The word that follows all of these is ‘warrior’ – hardly a 21st century concept, you might think, but popping up all over and causing us to add a new sense to the entry. We already have a historical definition:

(especially in the past) a person who fights in a battle or war

This had rather positive connotations – it goes with ‘brave’, ‘mighty’ ‘noble’ and ‘valiant’ but now we need to add a new sense which is much more disparaging:

a person who leads or takes part in a campaign for a political or social cause, especially in an aggressive way that other people disapprove of
These social justice warriors want to apply their politically correct standards and rules to others’ speech.

But why such an old-fashioned word as ‘warrior’? Well, I’m afraid I don’t know – that’s a bit out of my bailiwick. Oh yes – bailiwick – another old word that is enjoying a new life in a metaphorical sense. The corpus shows us that the historical use is now extremely rare – unless you live on the Channel Islands, you’re unlikely to hear it as in the meaning given in the native-speaker dictionary as:

the district or jurisdiction of a bailie or bailiff:
The warden had the right to arrest all poachers found within his bailiwick.

But over recent years it has become much more common thanks to increased use of the figurative sense, so that’s what we’re adding to the dictionary:

somebody’s particular area of responsibility or interest

So it’s not just eco-warriors who reduce, reuse and recycle. It seems we do it with words too – two words from Middle English alive and well in the 21st century.

*Jumpsquiffling, whoopsy-splunkers, gobblefunk, and lickswishy are all words invented by the children’s author Roald Dahl, and explained in the Oxford Roald Dahl Dictionary published in June 2016.


About the author: Margaret Deuter is a managing editor in the ELT Dictionaries department at Oxford University Press. She taught English in Germany and the United States before becoming a lexicographer in 1991 to work on monolingual and bilingual learners’ dictionaries.


Is there a word or phrase you would like to see featured as Word of the Month? It should be something that is new to the language or something that is being used in a new way. If you have a suggestion, please leave a comment. (All comments will need to be approved before they appear on the site.)