Nouns as adjectives: one of the funnest changes in English

The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word fun as follows:

Diversion, amusement, sport; also, boisterous jocularity or gaiety, drollery. Also, a source or cause of amusement or pleasure.

Which word class does fun belong to? Well, it’s a noun, of course. What else could it be? The OED agrees.

However, the latest edition of the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary allows for fun to appear before nouns, as in this example:

There are lots of fun things for young people to do here.

Could fun be regarded as an adjective in this example? Well, maybe, but we mustn’t forget that, although adjectives are indeed typically placed before nouns, it is also possible for nouns to occur there, as in the phrases lunch menu, mattress protector, business trip, and so on, so this particular example doesn’t conclusively show that fun can be an adjective.

However, the dictionary has two further examples:

She’s really fun to be with

This game looks fun.

shutterstock_6335350In the first of these examples fun is preceded by really, and this proves that it is an adjective, because the adverb really cannot modify nouns. In the second example fun occurs after look, and this again shows that fun is an adjective because only adjectives can occur after this verb (the same is true for seem, appear, smell, and taste).

An even more persuasive bit of evidence for the claim that fun can be an adjective is the fact that it is now also found with the comparative and superlative endings –er and –est, so that can we hear people say this:

There’s nothing funner than those new video games.

This is the funnest thing we’ve ever done together.

Not everyone would use the words funner and funnest. Indeed, after I wrote these sentences, red squiggles immediately appeared underneath them, indicating that my word processing software doesn’t like them either! Nevertheless, it seems that these days the evidence that fun can be used both as a noun and as an adjective is quite convincing.

Are there any other examples of nouns used as adjectives in English? I came across this sentence recently:

We have to be adult about this.

Here the noun adult is used in the sense ‘grown-up’. This is less frequent than fun used as an adjective, but language users are experimenting with new usages all the time, as this passage from the Huffington Post shows:¹

Look at me adulting all over the place. Although I still look to adultier adults (i.e. my husband, who is the adultest) for advice, as I look back on the last almost-decade of my life, I realize I actually have learned a ton of lessons.

The passage is interesting, because its author manages to use adult both as a verb (adulting) and as an adjective (adultier, adultest). There is again a red squiggly objection coming from my word processor to warn me that these examples are unusual. Maybe this guidance is not unreasonable, because most English speakers would regard this as playful language.

The new uses of fun and adult again demonstrate that English is constantly changing, and that some words do not exclusively belong to only one word class over time.


Bas Aarts is Professor of English Linguistics at UCL and the author of Oxford Modern English Grammar. He is a founder of the Englicious website which contains free English language teaching resources and writes the blog Grammarianism for teachers of English.

The English progressive construction: how it is changing

The English language uses the continuous or progressive construction to express that an activity or situation is ongoing in time. Here are some examples:

I’m singing in the rain.

He was waiting for a bus.

shutterstock_106631237_croppedThe first sentence expresses that the singing is ongoing now (present progressive), and likely to continue for a while, whereas the second indicates that the waiting was happening over a period of time in the past (past progressive).

What is interesting is that the progressive construction saw a meteoric rise in use in the 19th century. This was in part due to the fact that English had no way of expressing a passive progressive such as The house was being painted. Instead, the so-called passival was used, as in The house was painting. It’s hard to believe today, but the introduction of the passive progressive was widely frowned upon, indeed detested, by some writers. R. Grant White writing as late as 1871 regards the combination is being as ‘an absurdity … monstrous … ridiculous’. He goes on to say that:

In fact, it means nothing, and is the most incongruous usage of words and ideas that ever attained respectable usage in any civilized language.

Despite numerous similar attacks on the construction, it increased in use.

Another reason for this was that other constructions which involve the progressive were being used more and more, for example the so-called progressive futurate, as in I’m playing football in the park tomorrow. English speakers use this construction when they wish to express that some activity is planned or scheduled.

Recent research has shown that the progressive has continued to increase in use in the twentieth century. Linguists Christian Mair and Geoffrey Leech have shown that in written British and American English between the early 1960s and the early 1990s the progressive increased by 18.2% and 11.8%, respectively.¹ In spoken English over the same period there is also an increase in the use of the progressive, but it is much less pronounced, as subsequent research has shown.² This may suggest that the increase is levelling out.

Many people have noticed that the progressive is now often used with verbs that previously weren’t used in that construction, for example the verbs of ‘thinking’ and ‘emotion’, e.g. understand, love and want:

I’m understanding what you are saying.

We’re all loving this weekend break in the sun.

She’s wanting to finish her class early.

This use was attested in the early twentieth century, well before a well-known fast food outlet started using it.³ Usage is uneven at the present time, and we can say that this is a good example of a change in progress. Older speakers tend not to like it, or use it perhaps only with certain verbs, whereas the younger generations use it much more. This means that in all likelihood it will be seen as normal much more widely very soon, in the same way that the passive progressive became accepted over time.

¹ Christian Mair and Geoffrey Leech (2006) ‘Current Changes in English Syntax.’ In: Bas Aarts and April McMahon (eds.) The Handbook of English Linguistics, Malden, MA: Blackwell.

² Recent changes in the use of the progressive construction in English. 2010. (With Joanne Close and Sean Wallis). In: Bert Cappelle and Naoaki Wada (eds.) Distinctions in English grammar, offered to Renaat Declerck. Tokyo: Kaitakusha. 148-167.

³ i’m lovin’ it is the English version of the famous McDonald’s™ advertising slogan.

Bas Aarts is Professor of English Linguistics at UCL and the author of Oxford Modern English Grammar. He is a founder of the Englicious website which contains free English language teaching resources and writes the blog Grammarianism for teachers of English.

Changes in the use of the subjunctive

Here’s a grammar question for you. Which form of the verb be would you use in the first sentence below, and which form of the verb take in the second?

I wish that Kirsty … here to celebrate with us.

It’s essential that Sam … his phone with him.

Prescriptive grammars, which tell you how you should and shouldn’t use language, will say that you must use were in the first sentence and take in the second.

I wish that Kirsty were here to celebrate with us.

It’s essential that Sam take his phone with him.

oup_56043_croppedThe forms were and take in the second pair of sentences are often called subjunctive verb forms which indicate that a particular situation is unreal or not the case (Kirsty is not at the party; Sam hasn’t (yet) taken his phone with him), but is nevertheless wished-for. The second example above illustrates the use of the so-called mandative subjunctive to indicate the importance or necessity of something happening. Subjunctive verb forms will be familiar to you if you speak one or more of the romance languages, such as Spanish, Italian, or Portuguese.

But are were and take the only correct forms in the sentences above? More descriptively oriented grammar books will tell you that you can also use was and takes, or should take, at least in British English:

I wish that Kirsty was here to celebrate with us.

It’s essential that Sam takes his phone with him.

It’s essential that Sam should take his phone with him.

The first sentence uses the regular third person past tense form of the verb be, and the second uses the regular third person present tense form of take. In the third sentence we have an example of mandative should, which offers an alternative way of expressing necessity. These sentences would sound perfectly normal to many (especially younger) British speakers, but they would sound ungrammatical, or at least unusual, to many American ears.

Writing in the early part of the twentieth century, the Fowler brothers famously claimed in their book The King’s English that the mandative subjunctive should be avoided because it can be ‘dangerous’ (!) and is often ‘unpleasantly formal’. In any case, they argued, the subjunctive is unnecessary and about to disappear from the English language. It turned out that the Fowlers were wrong, and that not only did the subjunctive survive, it had a revival in British English during the second part of the twentieth century. For some, this caused anxiety, as this passage from Catherine Nesbitt from the early 1960s shows:

Today I would like to draw attention to something far more serious, the unexpected revival of the Subjunctive Mood, which seems to have begun in this country less than ten years ago and is now spreading so rapidly that, if left unchecked, it will do real damage to the structure of the language, a far more harmful thing than any craze for the latest fashionable word.

The revival of the subjunctive is quite surprising because to many modern ears it does sound rather quaint and formal. So what could be the reasons for it? Linguists have speculated that it may have happened under the influence of American English, in which the subjunctive was always more frequent. American English has been influencing British English ever since films, music and television programmes made their way across the ocean. However, some recent research suggests that the increased use of the subjunctive has now stalled. Who knows, in the longer term maybe the Fowlers may still be proved right about the subjunctive disappearing from the English language.

Bas Aarts is Professor of English Linguistics at UCL and the author of Oxford Modern English Grammar. He is a founder of the Englicious website which contains free English language teaching resources and writes the blog Grammarianism for teachers of English.

Modal verbs: how their use has declined in recent times

mustAs is well-known, English has a number of core modal verbs, including can/could, will/would, shall/should, may/might, and must. These make it possible for us to express meanings such as ‘possibility’, ‘necessity’, ‘obligation’, ‘permission’, and the like. In an earlier blog post I discussed the declining use of the modal verb must over recent decades. A very likely reason for this is that speakers have become less willing to appear to be telling others what to do, even in situations when they are entitled to do so.

What about the other modal verbs in English? The table below shows how their use has declined across the board in written and spoken British English between the 1960s and the 1990s:*

Changes in modal usage, calculated as a percentage change per million words of text. Bold figures are statistically significant.

Notice first of all that the rate of change is different for the various modals in written and spoken English. For example, the use of can has increased more in spoken than in written English. This may be due to speakers using this verb more often to ask for permission than may, which has declined in use.

Let’s now take a closer look at shall, which is much more common in British English than in American English. Like must, it has also dropped dramatically in use. When used with first person subjects shall alternates with will:

I shall look into this.

I will look into this.

Is there a difference between these two ways of talking about a future event? From a stylistic point of view there is: the first of these alternatives sounds more formal, and is more likely to be used by older speakers. However, there is really no difference in meaning: both sentences are used to speak about a situation in the future.

Not everyone would agree with what I just wrote. Some writers would say that with first person subjects (I/we) will should be used to convey the idea of ‘wanting’, whereas shall should be used to talk about a neutral future. With other persons (he, you, they, etc.) shall should be used for promises/guarantees (Cinderella shall go to the ball), in ‘regulatory language’ (Students shall not enter the premises after midnight), or to express something that the speaker wants (You came for the action, and action you shall have). The journalist Simon Heffer explains the difference with a well-known anecdote in his book Strictly English (2012):

The Victorian schoolmaster had a way of impressing this distinction upon his charges, with the story of the boy who drowned: for he had cried out ‘I will drown, and no-one shall save me’.

Heffer regrets the fact that speakers no longer know how to use shall and will in the right way. Maybe it’s true that a useful distinction in English is lost. However, another way of looking at this development is to recognize that the language has changed in such a way that the difference between shall and will (other than in questions) is slowly disappearing because speakers no longer sense a meaning difference between these verbs. This would mean that speakers need only one verb, and it looks like will has won out. The increased use of will shown in the table above supports this hypothesis, but the increase is not as high as you would expect, so perhaps the table only offers a partial explanation for the trends in usage. What’s interesting is that the decline of shall is slightly higher in spoken English than in written English. This may well mean that the decline will spread in the future because changes in spoken language often make their way into written language.

Bas Aarts is Professor of English Linguistics at UCL and the author of Oxford Modern English Grammar. He is a founder of the Englicious website which contains free English language teaching resources and writes the blog Grammarianism for teachers of English.

* The data are from Bas Aarts, Jill Bowie and Sean Wallis (2015) Profiling the English verb phrase over time: modal patterns. In: Irma Taavitsainen, Merja Kytö, Claudia Claridge and Jeremy Smith (eds.) Developments in English: expanding electronic evidence. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) and from Geoffrey Leech, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair, and Nicholas Smith (2015) Change in contemporary English: a grammatical study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).


Languages change all the time

If you have studied the English language at school, college or university you will know that it has changed since its beginnings to the present time. The following are the opening lines of Beowulf, written in Old English between 700 and 1000:

Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum
þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon
hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon

Unless you have taken a course in Old English, it is quite difficult, if not impossible, to understand this passage. English gets easier to understand over time, so that Chaucer’s Middle English is not as hard to read as Old English, and Shakespeare’s Early Modern English is not all that far removed from Modern English.

The Swiss linguist Ferdinand De Saussure famously made a distinction between studying a language diachronically, i.e. over time, and synchronically, i.e. at a particular time in its history. The distinction seems to be a useful one when we compare Beowulf with any piece of modern writing. However, in recent times linguists have questioned De Saussure’s distinction, and have pointed out that languages change all the time, even within the life span of individuals, and we can therefore speak of changes in progress, sometimes called ‘current change’. Nowadays, with the advent of large collections of language data (called corpora) tracking such changes has become easier.

Languages can change in many different ways.  The kinds of changes we can observe include sound changes, changes in the meaning or frequency of use of words, and changes in grammar. Let’s have a look at some examples.

Sound changes played a very prominent role in English, especially between 1350 and 1600 when the Great Vowel Shift took place. However, even in the present time changes in pronunciation happen. This is very obvious when you listen to announcers in old cinema newsreels: they sound distinctly different from present-day newscasters. Even the Queen’s pronunciation has changed over recent years, as recent research from a German University has shown.

In a post on my blog Grammarianism I discuss how the use of modal verbs has changed over the past few decades. Especially notable is the decline of must, which we can use to tell others to do something (“You must arrive by 6 p.m. at the latest”). Most likely as a result of our society becoming less hierarchical, speakers of English now tend to use different ways of making requests of others, without sounding too authoritarian. For example, they might use have to (“You have to arrive by 6 p.m. at the latest”) or need to (“You need to arrive by 6 p.m. at the latest”) instead.

As another example of changes in the use of particular words Catherine Soanes writes about the decline of the word whilst on the Oxford Dictionaries blog. She suggests that the reason for this decline might be that it sounds somewhat old-fashioned and pretentious, at least in the US. As for the UK, she observes:

In British English, whilst’ incurs less opprobrium, but guides and dictionaries usually advise that ‘while’ is preferable, given that it’s the most common form and may sound more up to date.

My own observations suggest that whilst may be making a comeback. I heard it recently in an announcement on a train platform: “Please take care whilst it is raining”. More tellingly, I hear it all the time in the speech of my 9-year old daughter and her friends. Of course, this is only anecdotal, and not solid evidence of a change, but if younger generations start re-using words, they may well be coming back into the language. Think also of the word cool which wasn’t cool for a long time, but it is now again being used by young people. Returning to whilst, interesting data on its use in the US are available in the following table from the Corpus of Contemporary American English:


COCA contains 520 million words, and the data are sourced from a large number of different text categories, including spoken material (shown at the top of the table). In the right-hand portion of the table we see a slight, but steady, increase in the use of whilst per million words between 1995 and 2015.

What about changes in grammar, i.e. the syntactic patterns that we find in language? Another observation I made in the speech of my youngest daughter (she’s a great source of data!) is the emergence of what I will call the isn’t it that-construction. Here are some examples:

Dad, isn’t it that you promised to make pancakes?

Isn’t it that Sarah’s party is this afternoon?

This construction seems to constitute a new way of asking questions: rather than asking Dad, didn’t you promise to make pancakes?  the new construction seems to be a clipped version of the longer Isn’t it the case that you promised to make pancakes? It’s not clear how the new construction came about, or whether it is more widespread than just in the speech of my daughter and her friends. At present the most we can say is that changes like this are trends, and more research is needed to find out if they will ever fully become part of the English language.

Bas Aarts is Professor of English Linguistics at UCL and the author of the Oxford Modern English Grammar. He is also a founder of the free Englicious website for teachers of English.